I have recently exchanged correspondence with Michael Roberts, the Chief Executive of the Association of Train Operating Companies (ATOC) on this subject on behalf of my constituents:
Letter from ATOC:
Rt Hon John Redwood MP
House of Commons
London SW1A 0AA
18 July 2012
Dear Mr Redwood
In response to your letter published in the Evening Standard on 9 July about overcrowding on commuter services into Britain’s major cities, I thought it might be helpful to clarify several of the points made and explain what steps train companies are taking to reduce overcrowding.
Turning to specific the points in your letter, you suggested that “lighter weight trains would brake better and reduce the long distances needed between trains for safety reasons”.
A safe braking distance is dependent on the grip between steel wheels and steel rails that can be guaranteed under normal operating conditions. Lighter weight trains would only offer a solution if the braking capability of current trains were constrained by their weight, but this is not the case. The current upper limit on braking capability is set by a combination of the physics of a steel wheel interacting with a steel rail and the need not to injure standing passengers when braking heavily.
Train companies are currently investigating whether alternative braking technologies in use on other networks could bring further capacity and safety benefits while ensuring that Britain’s rail safety record remains the best in Europe.
A major development in this area is the deployment of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERMTS) across Britain’s railways. In its simplest sense, this system replaces conventional trackside coloured light signals with an in-cab signalling system. This will allow the distance between trains to be reduced and will enable a greater number of services to run each hour. This system is already in operation on a small part of the network and will be expanded to the Great Western Main Line, the East Coast Main Line and the Midland Main Line over the next decade. New Thameslink and Crossrail services will use ERMTS from the outset.
You raised the matter of using rubber wheels on rolling stock and I can confirm this has been considered by train companies. Rubber wheels are used on some metro systems (eg Paris) and will deliver a greater amount of grip between the wheel and the rails when operating in dry conditions. It is incorrect, however, to say that they will perform better in rain and snow. When wet, rubber tyres on steel rails deliver significantly poorer grip than steel wheels on steel rails and are thus not used on mainline rail systems where most of the running is in the open air.
Substantial efforts have been made by companies and Network Rail over recent years to mitigate the impact of poor weather conditions, particularly on the heavily used but exposed ‘third rail’ electric railway in London and the South East of England. During a particularly significant snowfall, however, there remain major challenges to running services.
Finally, I dispute your comment that train companies “can’t be bothered” to improve services as “each region is still a monopoly”. The industry has made significant progress since privatisation, with train companies now running 20% more services a day than they did fifteen years ago. In addition, the industry has set out plans to provide around 180,000 more seats when services are busiest. Train companies compete not only at the franchise bidding stage but in many regions against one another and across the country against car and domestic aviation.
I hope this response is helpful and I would be happy to meet you to discuss in more detail the work train companies are doing to improve capacity on the railways.
Chief Executive, ATOC
Reply to Mr Roberts:
Mr Michael Roberts
Association of Train Operating
3rd Floor, 40 Bernard Street
London WC1N 1BY
23 July 2012
Dear Mr Roberts
Thank you for your letter of 18 July. I was glad to learn that you do intend to improve comfort, safety and capacity on commuter services, and I look forward to seeing the improvements on Thames Valley lines serving my constituency. We currently lack the frequency and comfort of service that many passengers would like. You seem to accept capacity is inadequate, as you refer to people having to stand on trains as a normal condition you plan for. We do not allow standing passengers on coaches or passengers without proper seats in cars. Perhaps you could let me have the details of how you plan to improve services for the Wokingham constituency.
You say you could not introduce faster braking with lighter trains. Surely if you reduce the weight that has to be slowed, you can slow it more easily with the braking force available. You also go on to say that nonetheless you are looking at alternative braking technology which might allow faster braking, which implies some acceptance of my case.
I am glad you are looking at signal systems which might raise capacity on existing lines. I was also interested to see you are examining rubber wheels. I did not have in mind rubber tyres on steel rails, but a rubber tyre option that could engage with a concrete or other friction generating surface which could engage for braking or when the steel on steel system is slipping too much. Hydraulic engagement with a concrete runner or with a suitable strip near the tracks would do the job of generating friction and traction in difficult weather conditions.
I do not feel that railway companies have done anything like as much as airlines and the motor industry to improve the standards of safety and comfort, or to provide the extra capacity modern travellers need. I do hope your letter points the way forward to a better record in future. Having to stand on a train is not acceptable. Providing no seat belts on fast intercity trains remains a worry.
The Rt Hon John Redwood MP
Member of Parliament for Wokingham